Sanskrit is a historical Indo-Aryan language, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and a literary and scholarly language in Buddhism and Jainism.The grammar of the Sanskrit language has a complex verbal system, rich nominal declension, and extensive use of compound nouns. It was studied and codified by Sanskrit grammarians from the later Vedic period (roughly 8th century BC), culminating in the Pa?inian grammar of the 4th century BC.The grammatical tradition of Sanskrit (vyakara?a, one of the six Veda?ga disciplines) began in late Vedic India and culminated in the A??adhyayi of Pa?ini, a work which consists of 3990 sutras or aphorisms. Katyayana composed Vartikas (explanations) on Pa?ini’s sutras. Patañjali, who lived three centuries after Panini, wrote the Mahabha?ya, the “Great Commentary” on the A??adhyayi and the Vartikas. Because of these three ancient [Sanskrit grammarians] this grammar is called Trimuni Vyakarana or ‘grammar of three sages’. Jayaditya and Vamana wrote the commentary named Kasika 600 CE, to elucidate the meaning of the sutras. Pa?inian grammar is based on 14 Shiva sutras. The whole Matrika (alphabet) is abbreviated here. This abbreviation is called Pratyahara. Kaiya?a’s (12th century AD) commentary on Patañjali’s Mahabha?ya also exerted much influence on the development of grammar, but more influential was the Rupavatara of Buddhist scholar Dharmakirti which popularised simplified versions of Sanskrit grammar. The most influential work of the Early Modern (Mughal) period was Siddhanta Kaumudi by Bha??oji Dik?ita (17th century) and its various derivate versions by Varadaraja. European grammatical scholarship began in the 18th century with Jean François Pons and others, and culminated in the exhaustive expositions by 19th century scholars such as Otto Boehtlingk, William Dwight Whitney, Jacob Wackernagel and others. Vedic Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language. It is an archaic form of Sanskrit, an early descendant of Proto-Indo-Iranian. It is closely related to Avestan, the oldest preserved Iranian language. Vedic Sanskrit is the oldest attested language of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, texts compiled over the period of early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BC. Vedic Sanskrit has been orally preserved as a part of the Srauta tradition of Vedic chanting, predating the advent of alphabetic writing in India by several centuries. For lack of both epigraphic evidence and an unbroken manuscript tradition, Vedic Sanskrit can be considered a reconstructed language. Especially the oldest stage of the language, Rigvedic Sanskrit, the language of the hymns of the Rigveda, is preserved only in a redacted form several centuries younger than the texts’ composition. Recovering its original form is a matter of linguistic reconstruction. From about the 6th century BC, in the classical period of Iron Age Ancient India, Vedic Sanskrit gave way to Classical Sanskrit as defined by the grammar of Pa?ini. Literature in Sanskrit begins with the Vedas, and continues with the Sanskrit Epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries AD). Literary production saw a late bloom in the 11th century before declining after 1100 AD. There are contemporary efforts towards revival, with events like the “All-India Sanskrit Festival” (since 2002) holding composition contests. Given its extensive use in religious literature, primarily in Hinduism, and the fact that most modern Indian languages have been directly derived from or strongly influenced by Sanskrit, the language and its literature is of great importance in Indian culture akin to that of Greek and Latin in European culture. Some Sanskrit literature such as the Yoga-Sutras of Patanjali and the Upanishads were translated into Arabic and Persian.The Panchatantra was also translated into Persian The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows a lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by the Sanskrit language. It is also used to romanize Pa?i.IAST is especially used for books dealing with ancient Sanskrit and Pa?i topics related to Indian religions. The script is, however, insufficient to represent both Sanskrit and Pa?i on the same page properly because the ?, a vowel in Sanskrit, is the retroflexive consonant in Pa?i. Here it is better to follow Unicode and ISO 15919, which is in any case a more comprehensive scheme. IAST is based on a standard established by the International Congress of Orientalists at Geneva in 1894.It allows a lossless transliteration of Devanagari (and other Indic scripts, such as Sarada script); and, as such, it represents not only the phonemes of Sanskrit, but allows essentially phonetic transcription. E.g., Visarga ? is an allophone of word-final r and s. The National Library at Kolkata romanization, intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST.
ATTACHED PHOTOS & TEXT LINKS ARE IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATION OF GURU DR.RUPNATHJI ( DR.RUPAK NATH ).Dr.Rupnathji is a scholar who has earned the Master’s Degree in Radiation Physics. Recipient of many medals and honours, He is at once a Physician, an astrophysicist and an applied mathematician. He is an author who has numerous publications, both technical and educational. He is a Professor and has been Distinguished Honors Visiting Lecturer at numerous universities throughout the World. Ancient Indian history, geology and archaeology also attracted his attention. Besides Medicinal Science, he is keenly interested in ancient Indian philosophy. Rupnathji is more than a scientist. He is a physicist-philosopher as well versed in Sanskrit, English Hindi and Bengali literature as in physics.University Professor Language Specialist Dr.Rupnathji ( Dr.Rupak Nath ) is an Expert in Sanskrit Grammer. Rupnathji is the collector and publisher of many old works, author of many research articles, a noted historiographer, and recipient of a number of awards and titles. Besides the knowledge of Sadhnas, Tantra, Mantra and Yantra, he resurrected Astrology to its past glory by making astoundingly precise forecasts in general and for individuals; and he authored no less than 1200 books on this subject. He was an authority on Allopathy and set up special farms to grow the almost extinct herbs. Many disciples mastered the science of Ayurveda under him. Apart from Astrology, He authored more than 750 books on diverse subjects like Sadhnas, Kundalini Tantra, Palmistry, Paarad Vigyan (alchemy), Hypnotism, Meditation, Numerology, Allopathy , Signature Analysis, Yoga and other subjects of the spiritual field. He has also released hundreds of audio and video cassettes to detail the exact procedures of performing worship and to record the authentic sound vibration and pronunciation of the Mantras. Many of his articles have been published in leading newspapers and magazines. He accomplished significant spiritual and religious ceremonies at various religious places of pilgrimage in India and thus re-established the religious and historical significance of these places in the society. He presided over various Tantra and Mantra conferences and is recognized as the pillar stone of the field of the Tantra. He has been honoured with several titles of recognition in various fields. He was honoured with the title of “Maha Mahopadhyay” in 1995 by the then vicepresident of India. He was honoured with the title of “Samaj Shiromani” in 1999 by the then Vice-President of India. In 1998, he was honoured by the then Prime Minister of Nepal, for his unique and singular work in the social and religious fields. He was nominated as the President of the World Astrology Conference from amongst representatives of various countries in 1999 and has been nominated as President of most of the All India Astrology Conferences organised since 1997. He was honoured with the title of “Tantra Shiromani” by the Parapsychological Council in 1997. He was honoured with the title of “Mantra Shiromani” by the Mantra Sansthan in 1998. Maha Yogi Paramahamsa Dr.Rupnathji attained great respect, both in India and abroad, and was honoured with many spiritual titles, among others the Hindu Dharma Samrat, which means the upholder of Sat Sanathan Dharma, the eternal ruling “religion” which is above all “confessions” and connects and unites all living beings.Please see his Books.
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